CS 259D 僵尸网络 EXPOSURE: Finding Malicious Domains Using Passive DNS Analysis

作者:Leo

文中图表均引用于 CS259D 课程,版权由 CS259D 所有。

  • 背景知识与启发
  • 论文目标与贡献
  • EXPOSURE 概述
  • 收集训练数据
  • 特征
    • 基于时间的特征
      • 变化点检测(Change Point Detection, CPD)
      • 检测每日近似行为
    • 基于 DNS 应答的特征
    • 基于 TTL 的特征
    • 基于域名的特征
  • 训练
    • 分类器
      • C4.5 决策树算法
  • 评价
  • 局限 (逃避检测)
  • 参考资料

背景知识与启发

  • 典型 Internet 攻击
    • 僵尸网络
    • 钓鱼
  • 攻击者和企业一样面临同样的工程技术挑战
    • 实现可靠和灵活的服务器基础架构
    • DNS 的优势
      • 变换 IP
      • 隐藏关键服务器
      • 灵活地迁移服务器
      • 服务器比 IP 更“容错”

论文目标与贡献

  • 检测恶意域名
    • 被动式
    • 没有先验知识
  • 15 个行为特征
    • 9 个新特征

EXPOSURE 概述

EXPOSURE 概述

  • 五个主要部分
    • 数据收集
    • 特征提取
    • 恶意和良性域名收集(有标签数据)
      • 恶意
      • 良性
    • 学习模块
    • 分类
      • 给为标记的域名分类

收集训练数据

  • 来自(Security Information Exchange,SIE)的 DNS 流量
    • 来自北美和欧洲的权威名称服务器的响应数据
    • 2.5个月
    • 超过1000亿 DNS 查询(平均每分钟100万次查询)
    • 480万个不同的域名
    • 过滤
      • Alexa 排名前1000(减少20%)
      • 超过1年的域名(减少50%以上)
  • 恶意域名
    • 3500个域名
    • 类型
      • 僵尸网络 C&C
      • 驱动下载网站
      • 网络钓鱼/诈骗页面
    • 示例
  • 良性的域名
    • 3000个域名
    • 示例
      • Alexa top 1000

特征

  • F1: 基于时间的特征
    • 存活时间短
    • 每日相似程度
    • 模式重复
    • 访问比例
  • F2: 基于 DNS 应答的特征
    • 不同 IP 地址的数量
    • 不同的 IP 地址所在国家的数量
    • 共享域名的数量
    • 反向 DNS 查询结果
  • F3: 基于 TTL 的特征
    • TTL 的平均数
    • TTL 标准差
    • 不同 TTL 值的数量
    • TTL 的变化次数
    • 使用特定的 TTL 范围的百分比
  • F4: 基于域名的特征
    • 数字字符的百分比
    • 最长有意义子串(longest meaningful substring,LMS)长度的百分比

基于时间的特征

  • 启发
    • 恶意域名的请求数量往往急增急减
  • 分析方法
    • 将时段分入为固定长度的间隔
    • 统计查询次数
  • 全局范围
    • 存活时间短
      • DGA(域生成算法,domain generation algorithm)生成域名
    • 改变行为
  • 本地范围
    • 主要思路
      • 放大域名的生命周期
      • 研究行为特征
    • 每日相似程度
      • 每日以相同的时间间隔增加或减少请求数
    • 模式重复
      • 变化点检测(change point detection,CPD)
      • 变化数量
      • 检测到的变化的持续时间的标准差
    • 访问比例
      • 空闲还是热门

变化点检测(Change Point Detection, CPD)

  • 运作于时间序列之上
  • 目标是找到那些数据值突然改变的点
  • 检测突变
    • 对每个域名的时间序列
      • \(P(t)\),在小时 \(t\) 时的请求数量,并由最大值做标准化
      • 迭代时间间隔 \(t = 3600s\)
      • \(P^-(t)\), 过去 \(8\) 个时间间隔的平均数
      • \(P^+(t)\), 未来 \(8\) 个时间间隔的平均数
      • \(d(t) = |P^+(t) – P^-(t)|\)
    • 对 \(d(t)\) 做累加求和
      • 对于检测时间 \(t\), 当 \(d(t)\) 够大并且是 \(local\_max\)
      • \(CUSUM(t) = Max\{0, CUSUM(t-1) + d(t) – local\_max\}\)
      • 如果 \(CUSUM(t) > cusum\_max\),就把 \(t\) 作为监测点报告

检测每日近似行为

  • 计算所有时间序列对的距离
    • 通过平均值和标准差对时间序列做标准化
    • 计算欧几里得距离
  • \(d_{ij}\),第\(i\)天和第\(j\)天之间的欧几里得距离
  • \(D\),\(d_{ij}\)所有只的平均数

基于 DNS 应答的特征

  • 域名映射到多个 IP 地址,IP 地址被不同的域名共享
  • 不同 IP 地址的数量
    • 在实验期间解析的域名
  • 不同的 IP 地址所在国家的数量
  • 共用 IP 的域名数量
    • 网络托管提供商的共用 IP 量可能很多
  • 反向 DNS 查询结果
    • 通过在Google前3名搜索结果中,反向查询 DNS,以此来减少误报

基于 TTL 的特征

  • TTL(Time To Live,生存时间):DNS响应缓存的时长
    • 建议时长1-5天
  • 启发
    • 恶意网络复杂的基础设施会频繁更改 TTL
    • 设置的 TTL 值较低的主机不太可靠
  • TTL 平均值
    • 高效的系统
      • TTL 值低
      • 轮询调度 DNS
      • 例如:CDN,Fast Flux 僵尸网络
  • TTL 标准差
    • 受感染的家庭计算机(动态 IP)分配的 TTL 要比受感染的服务器(静态 IP)短
  • 不同的TTL值的数量
  • TTL 变化次数
    • 恶意域名变化次数较高
  • 特定的 TTL 区间的使用占比
    • 考虑一下范围:\([0,1), [1,10), [10,100), [100,300), [300,900), [900, inf)\)
    • 恶意域名的区间在 \([0, 100)\)

基于域名的特征

  • 启发
    • 易于记忆的名字
      • 对于正常的服务很重要
      • DNS 的主要目的
    • 对攻击者而言不重要(如,通过 DGA 生成)
  • 数字字符与名字长度的比例
  • 最长有意义子串(longest meaningful substring,LMS)的长度与域名长度的比例
    • 在谷歌查询并把匹配数与特定的阈值相比较
  • 仅在二级域名(second-level domains,SLD)上使用特征
    • x.y.server.com \(\rightarrow\) server.com
  • 其他可能的功能:域名的熵
    • DGA生成的域名比人为设定的更随机

训练

  • 训练周期
    • 初始期限为7天(基于时间的特征)
    • 每天重新训练

分类器

  • J48 决策树
    • C4.5
  • 特征选择
    • 错误分类的样本的百分比

C4.5 决策树算法

  • 检查基本情况
  • 对于每个特征
    • 计算特征的标准化信息增益
  • 以最高增益分割属性
  • 递归
  • 标准化的信息增益 = 类的熵值差异

评价

  • 评估检测率
    • malwareurls.com 提供了569个域名
      • 在受监视的网路中有216个域名被查询
    • 5个域名查询次数少于20
      • 已过滤
    • 211个域名检测到恶意行为
    • 检测率:98%
  • 评估误报率
    • 过滤两个半月内查询次数少于20的域名(剩余300,000个域名)
    • 17,686被检测为恶意(5.9%)
    • 域名无标记
      • 很难手动验证
    • 验证
      • Google搜索
      • 众所周知的垃圾邮件列表
      • 诺顿安全网站
      • McAfee Site Advisor
    • 误报率:7.9%

局限 (逃避检测)

  • 攻击者事先知道关于 EXPOSURE 的信息
  • 在所有受感染的宿主上设置统一的 TTL 值
    • 降低攻击者的设施可靠性
  • 减少恶意域名的 DNS 查询次数
    • 执行起来并非易事
    • 攻击效果受影响
    • 要协调到高度一致

参考资料

  • EXPOSURE: Finding Malicious Domains Using Passive DNS Analysis (2011)
  • CS 259D Lecture 3

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